What is fipronil?

• Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide which was introduced for use in animal health, indoor pest control, and commercial turf in 1996.

What is fipronil used for?

• Fipronil is frequently used for the control of fleas, ticks, cockroaches and ants.

How does fiprinol work?

• Fipronil disrupts normal nerve function. Fipronil acts by blocking the GABA-gated chloride channels of neurons in the central nervous system. The GABA-receptor system is responsible for inhibition of normal neural activity (i.e. prevents excessive stimulation of the nerves). When the system's regular functions are blocked by fipronil, the result is neural excitation and the death of the insect.

• Fipronil kills insects by contact and ingestion. The principal path of activity is dependent on the insect target. It appears to be effective against adult and larval stages.

How toxic is fipronil?

• The technical product (96.5% fipronil) has a high order of toxicity with respect to ingestion and

• inhalation in the rat, but appears to be less toxic via skin absorption. Fipronil is more toxic via skin

• absorption in the rabbit than in the rat.

• Fipronil may cause mild irritation to the eyes and slight skin irritation. It does not sensitize the skin.

• Signs of toxicity in rats include reduced feed consumption, anuria (no urination), increased excitability, and seizures.

• Affected organs may include the liver, thyroid, and kidney.

What effect does fipronil have on wildlife?

• Fipronil is highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Its tendency to bind to sediments and

• its low water solubility may reduce the potential hazard to aquatic wildlife.

• Fipronil is toxic to bees and should not be applied to vegetation when bees are foraging.

• Fipronil has been found to be highly toxic to upland game birds, but is practically non-toxic to waterfowl and other bird species.

• One of the metabolites of fipronil has a higher toxicity to birds than the parent compound itself.

• Fipronil is non-toxic to earthworms, soil microorganisms and aquatic plants.

• Fipronil is moderately toxic to small mammals if ingested.

Signs of toxicity in humans.

• Data not found.