This information is designed to give a brief overview of the active ingredients contained in products available through this website. The information contained is not definitive and you should only rely on the information written on the product label.
Before you apply pesticides, consider the potential harmful effects on birds, aquatic organisms, and beneficial insects.
What is bendiocarb?
Bendiocarb belongs to a class of insecticide known as carbamates. Bendiocarb was withdrawn from use in the United states in 2001 but is still available here in Britain. That may soon change.
What is bendiocarb used for?
In pest control bendiocarbs are used to control a wide range of insects such as beetles, spiders, aphids, mites, wasps, cockroaches and ants.
Bendiocarb may be licenced for both indoor and outdoor use. Products containing bendiocarb are usually formulated as dusts and powders so are mainly targeted at crawling insects.
How does bendiocarb work?
Bendiocarb disrupts the normal functioning of an insect’s nervous system and may kill by either contact or ingestion. Bendiocarb disrupts the nervous system by interfering with an enzyme necessary for normal nerve transmission.
Which of our products contain bendiocarb?
How toxic is bendiocarb?
Bendiocarb containing products are low to moderate in toxicity. The pure chemical is highly toxic. The formulated products are typically lower in toxicity because of the reduced concentration of bendiocarb.
Bendiocarb is moderately to highly toxic to both male and female rats.
Bendiocarb is highly toxic to guinea pigs and rabbits. When researchers applied bendiocarb to the skin of rats, they found it to be moderately toxic.
What effect does bendiocarb have on wildlife?
Pure bendiocarb is highly toxic to birds such as ducks and quail. Bendiocarb is highly toxic to honey bees.
Bendiocarb is also extremely toxic to earthworms, reducing a population over 90% in one study in which bendiocarb was applied at a standard rate.
Bendiocarb is also moderately to highly toxic to several species of fish and aquatic invertebrates such as shrimp, crabs, and insects.
Signs of toxicity in humans.
Early symptoms associated with bendiocarb exposure may include headache, malaise, muscle weakness, nausea, gastrointestinal cramps, sweating, and restlessness.
Greater exposures to bendiocarb may lead to pin-point pupils, tearing, excessive salivation, nasal discharge, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle twitching, and problems with coordination.
Severe poisonings can result in convulsions, coma, and death.
Read more: Bendiocarb
What is boric acid?
Boric acid is derived from boron, a naturally occurring substance found in rocks, soil, and water. Boron is common in the environment. Boric acid is generally a white solid, but it may be clear to murky.
It is odorless and generally stable under normal conditions.Boric acid naturally occurs in air, water (surface and ground water), soil, and plants, including food crops.
It enters the environment through break down of rocks, loss from seawater, and volcanic eruptions.
What is boric acid used for?
Boric acid and salts of boric acid are active ingredients of pesticide products used against insects, spiders, mites, algae, molds, fungi, and weeds.
Boric acid pesticides exist in various forms including aerosols, liquids, granules, wettable powders, dusts, pellets/tablets, and impregnated materials (baits, stakes, etc.).
How does boric acid work?
Insects are killed by eating boric acid and its salts. The salts of boric acid are abrasive to the exterior of the insect.
Boron is an essential plant nutrient, and some boric acid products are used to aid plant growth. Plants need small amounts of boron but high levels are toxic. Boric acid kills weeds by disrupting normal plant functions and causing water loss.Boric acid interferes with reproduction of molds and fungi.
How toxic is boric acid?
Boric acid is very low to low in toxicity when eaten.Boron compounds are low to very low in toxicity when inhaled. Boric acid is low in toxicity when applied to the skin.
It is poorly absorbed in rabbits across intact skin, but damaged skin experiences increased penetration. Boric acid is classified as low to very low in toxicity for skin irritation.
Boric acid is generally low in toxicity for eye irritation. An exception is a specific boric acid salt, which is highly toxic to the eye.
In a 90-day study, investigators fed dogs boric acid. At the highest dose, they noted altered blood chemistry, a buildup of fat in select tissues, and toxicity to the testes. Researchers fed dogs boric acid in the diet for 2 years and detected no adverse health effects.
Signs of toxicity in laboratory animals poisoned with boric acid include depression, impaired muscle movement, vomiting, purple-red skin color, and lowered body temperature.
What effect does boric acid have on wildlife?
Boric acid is practically nontoxic to fish and other water organisms. Boric acid has a low potential to buildup in organisms. Boric acid is practically nontoxic to birds. Boric acid may adversely affect development of young birds.
In studies with ducks, the highest tested doses in ducklings caused increased mortality, altered behaviour, and decreased growth and hatching success.Boric acid is relatively nontoxic to bees.
Signs of toxicity in humans.
Investigators evaluated cases of people who ate boric acid. No patients experienced severe toxicity, and the majority did not have symptoms. In patients experiencing symptoms, the most common complaints were vomiting, stomach pain, and diarrhea. Sluggishness, lightheadedness, and rashes were less common symptoms.
Two siblings, one 24 days old and the other 14 months, were inadvertently fed boric acid in their formula. Symptoms included irritability, diarrhoea, and redness in the groin area. Neither child developed severe toxicity nor had symptoms 1 month after the incident.
Read more: Boric Acid
What is cypermethrin?
Cypermethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide. It was first synthesized in 1974. Cypermethrin is a synthetic chemical similar to the pyrethrins in pyrethrum extract (which comes from the chrysanthemum plant).
Pyrethroids, including cypermethrin were designed to be effective longer than pyrethrins.
What is cypermethrin used for?
Cypermethrin is used for the control of insects and is usually formulated as a spray.
How does cypermethrin work?
Cypermethrin works by quickly affecting the insect’s central nervous system.
Which of our products contain cypermethrin?
How toxic is cypermethrin?
Cockroach brain cells exposed to very small doses of cypermethrin exhibited a nervous system response, which would result in restlessness, incoordination, prostration, and paralysis.
Mice exposed to small doses of cypermethrin displayed symptoms including writhing, convulsions, and salivation.
Rats exposed to cypermethrin exhibited similar symptoms including tremors, seizures, writhing, and salivation as well as burrowing behaviour.
What effect does cypermethrin have on wildlife?
Cypermethrin is highly toxic to fish. Cypermethrin is highly toxic to bees. Cypermethrin is very highly toxic to water insects. Cypermethrin is very low in toxicity to birds.
Signs of toxicity in humans.
People handling or working with pyrethrins and pyrethroids (including cypermethrin) sometimes developed tingling, burning, dizziness and itching.
Read more: Cypermethrin
What is fipronil?
Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide which was introduced for use in animal health, indoor pest control, and commercial turf in 1996.
What is fipronil used for?
Fipronil is frequently used for the control of fleas, ticks, cockroaches and ants.
How does fiprinol work?
Fipronil disrupts normal nerve function. Fipronil acts by blocking the GABA-gated chloride channels of neurons in the central nervous system. The GABA-receptor system is responsible for inhibition of normal neural activity (i.e. prevents excessive stimulation of the nerves).
When the system’s regular functions are blocked by fipronil, the result is neural excitation and the death of the insect. Fipronil kills insects by contact and ingestion.
The principal path of activity is dependent on the insect target. It appears to be effective against adult and larval stages.
How toxic is fipronil?
The technical product (96.5% fipronil) has a high order of toxicity with respect to ingestion and inhalation in the rat, but appears to be less toxic via skin absorption. Fipronil is more toxic via skin absorption in the rabbit than in the rat.
Fipronil may cause mild irritation to the eyes and slight skin irritation. It does not sensitize the skin.
Signs of toxicity in rats include reduced feed consumption, anuria (no urination), increased excitability, and seizures. Affected organs may include the liver, thyroid, and kidney.
What effect does fipronil have on wildlife?
Fipronil is highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. It’s tendency to bind to sediments and its low water solubility may reduce the potential hazard to aquatic wildlife.
Fipronil is toxic to bees and should not be applied to vegetation when bees are foraging.
Fipronil has been found to be highly toxic to upland game birds, but is practically non-toxic to waterfowl and other bird species. One of the metabolites of fipronil has a higher toxicity to birds than the parent compound itself.
Fipronil is non-toxic to earthworms, soil microorganisms and aquatic plants.
Fipronil is moderately toxic to small mammals if ingested.
Signs of toxicity in humans.
Data not found.
Read more: Fipronil
What is permethrin?
Permethrin is a pyrethroid. It is a synthetic chemical similar to the natural insecticide pyrethrum which comes from the chrysanthemum plant, but it remains effective for longer periods of time.
How does permethrin work?
Pyrethroids work by quickly paralysing the nervous system of insects.
Permethrin kills insects when it contacts them or when they eat it. It also has repellent effects.
It is effective against all stages of insect growth, particularly larvae.
Which of our products contain permethrin?
- Indorex Flea Spray
- Fortefog Midi Fumer
- SX Minismoke
- SX Supasmoke
- Residex P
- Digrain Wasp Nest Destroyer
- Woodworm Fluid Spray
How toxic is permethrin?
Rats fed high doses of permethrin exhibited tremors, salivation, hyperactivity, hyper excitability, urination, defecation and incoordination.
In a study involving newborn and adult rats, the newborn rats were found to be more sensitive to permethrin than the adults.
The enzymes that break down permethrin in the body are not completely developed in the newborn rats. The incomplete development of the liver enzymes made the newborn animals more sensitive to permethrin than mature animals.
What effect does permethrin have on wildlife?
Permethrin has been found to be highly toxic to fish in laboratory experiments.
Permethrin is highly toxic to bees in laboratory conditions. However, when used properly, permethrin has a strong repellent effect in the environment and should pose little risk to bees.
Permethrin is of low toxicity to birds.
Signs of toxicity in humans.
Permethrin has low to moderate toxicity to humans for short-term exposures. Results of animal studies suggest that human newborns may be more sensitive to permethrin than adults. Permethrin acts similarly to the insecticide pyrethrum (from the chrysanthemum plant).
Pyrethrum can cause skin or respiratory reactions in people with hayfever or in people who are sensitive to ragweed and pollen. These reactions may include irritation or inflammation of the skin (contact dermatitis) or sneezing, nasal stuffiness, or asthmatic breathing.
Although there is no clear evidence that pyrethroids (such as permethrin) cause allergic-type reactions, it is important to recognize this possibility.
Exposure to permethrin may occasionally produce numbing, tingling, and burning sensations of the skin. These sensations are reversible and usually go away within 12 hours.
Read more: Permethrin
Pyrethrins & Pyrethroids
What are pyrethrins?
Pyrethrins are insecticides that are derived from the extract of chrysanthemum flowers (pyrethrum). The plant extract, called pyrethrum contains pyrethrin I and pyrethrin II collectively, called pyrethrins.
What are pyrethroids?
Pyrethroids are synthetic (human-made) forms of pyrethrins. There are two types that differ in chemical structure and symptoms of exposure.
Type I pyrethroids include allethrin, tetramethrin, resmethrin, d-phenothrin, bioresmethrin, and permethrin.
Some examples of type II pyrethroids are cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, cyphenothrin, fenvalerate, and fluvalinate.
Both type I and II pyrethroids inhibit the nervous system of insects. This occurs at the sodium ion channels in the nerve cell membrane.
Some type II pyrethroids also affect the action of a eurotransmitter called GABA.
What are pyrethrins and pyrethroids used for?
Pyrethrins are widely used for the control of various insect pests.
How do pyrethrins and pyrethroids work?
Nerve cell membranes have a specific electrical charge. Altering the amount of ions (charged atoms) passing through ion channels causes the membrane to depolarize which, in turn, causes a neurotransmitter to be released.
Neurotransmitters help nerve cells communicate. Electrical messages sent between nerve cells allow them to generate a response, like a movement in an animal or insect. Pyrethrins affect the nervous system of insects by causing multiple action potentials in the nerve cells by delaying the closing of an ion channel.
Pyrethrins and pyrethroids act as contact poisons, affecting the insect’s nervous system. Even though pyrethrins and pyrethroids are nerve poisons, they are not cholinesterase inhibitors like organophosphate or carbamate insecticides.
Pesticide products containing pyrethrins usually contain a synergist (such as piperonyl butoxide). Synergists work by restricting an enzyme that insects use to detoxify the pyrethrins. A synergist allows the insecticide to be more effective.
Which of our products contain pyrethrins and pyrethroids?
How toxic are pyrethrins and pyrethroids?
Pyrethrins are one of the least poisonous insecticides to mammals.
Rats fed high doses (1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight or mg/kg) of pyrethrins showed liver damage. Rats exposed to pyrethrins exhibited difficulty or rapid breathing, incoordination, sprawling of limbs, tremors, aggression, sensitivity to external stimuli, twitching, and exhaustion.
What effect does Pyrethrin have on wildlife?
Pyrethrins are highly toxic to fish and tadpoles. They affect their skin touch receptors and balance organs.
Pyrethrins are toxic to beneficial insect (such as honeybees) and many aquatic invertebrates.
Pyrethrins are low in toxicity to humans, other mammals, and birds.
Signs of toxicity in humans.
Inhaling pyrethrins can cause coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, runny or stuffy nose, chest pain, or difficulty breathing. Skin contact can cause a rash, itching, or blisters
Read more: Pyrethrins & Pyrethroids
What is deltamethrin?
Deltamethrin is a pyrethroyd insecticide that kills insects on contact and through digestion. It is a synthetic insecticide based on natural pyrethrins.
Deltamethrin products are some of the most popular and widely used insecticides in the world.
What is deltamethrin used for?
Deltamethrin has a very broad spectrum of insect control and is effective against cockroaches, flies, fleas, beetles, bed bugs and a large number of other insects and bugs.
How does deltamethrin work?
Deltamethrin causes death due to irreversible damage to the nervous system. It rapidly paralyses the insect’s nervous system resulting in a quick ‘knockdown’ of the insect.
Which of our products contain deltamethrin?
How toxic is deltamethrin?
Deltamethrin is highly toxic to insects.
Mammalian exposure to deltamethrin is classified as safe provided it is used in accordance with the product label.
What effect does deltamethrin have on wildlife?
As is common with all pyrethroids, deltamethrin has high toxicity to bees.
It is extremely toxic to aquatic insects and fish.
Signs of toxicity in humans.
Deltamethrin is a neurotoxin, it attacks the nervous system of insects and mammals. Skin contact can lead to tingling or reddening of the skin local to the application.
If taken in through the eyes or mouth, a common symptom is facial paraesthesia, which can feel like many different abnormal sensations, including burning, partial numbness, ‘pins and needles’, skin crawling, etc.
Recently, in South Africa, residues of deltamethrin were found in breast milk, together with DDT, in an area that used DDT treatment for malaria control, as well as pyrethroids in small-scale agriculture.
Read more: Deltamethrin
What is piperonyl butoxide?
Piperonyl butoxide is a synergist used in a wide variety of pesticides. Synergists are chemicals that lack pesticidal effects of their own but enhance the pesticidal properties of other chemicals.
Piperonyl butoxide is used in pesticides containing chemicals such as pyrethrins, pyrethroids, rotenone, and carbamates.
Researchers developed piperonyl butoxide in 1947 using naturally-occurring safrole as a key raw material.
Piperonyl butoxide is a colorless to pale yellow liquid. It does not dissolve in water and is stable to breakdown by water and ultraviolet light.
What is piperonyl butoxide used for?
Piperonyl butoxide is used to enhance the pesticidal properties of pesticides.
How does piperonyl butoxide work?
Piperonyl butoxide inhibits breakdown of pesticides by insects.
Without piperonyl butoxide, an insect may degrade a pesticide before an effect can occur. The addition of piperonyl butoxide to a pesticide reduces the amount of pesticide required to be effective.
How toxic is piperonyl butoxide?
Piperonyl butoxide is low to very low in toxicity when eaten by mammals.
Piperonyl butoxide is very low in toxicity when inhaled by rats.
Piperonyl butoxide is low to very low in toxicity to mammals when absorbed by the skin.
Guinea-pigs exposed to piperonyl butoxide showed no signs of skin sensitivity. Researchers exposed the eyes of rabbits to piperonyl butoxide and all eye irritations that developed fully recovered. The liver is the target organ for piperonyl butoxide.
Researchers applied piperonyl butoxide to the skin of male and female rabbits for three weeks. They noted skin redness and swelling at the application sites.
Researchers fed dogs capsules containing piperonyl butoxide for one year. All dogs dosed at the highest level died; those dosed at the lowest level exhibited no effects.
What effect does piperonyl butoxide have on wildlife?
Researchers consider piperonyl butoxide moderately toxic to fish and highly toxic to other aquatic organisms.
It is not likely to accumulate in fish.
Piperonyl butoxide is low to very low in toxicity when eaten by birds.
Signs of toxicity in humans.
Researchers gave eight male human volunteers, aged 22 to 57, a single oral dose of piperonyl butoxide. They monitored the volunteers for 31 hours and observed no changes in the volunteers’ metabolism.
Read more: Piperonyl Butoxide
Tetramethrin is a broad-spectrum, first-generation synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. Pyrethroids are synthetic esters derived from naturally occurring pyrethrins (insecticides derived from the extract of chrysanthemum flowers).
Tetramethrin is a rapid knockdown agent against flying and crawling insects.
Read more: Tetramethrin
Methoprene is commonly added to insecticides to be used against insects. It comes in two different forms called s-methoprene and r-methoprene, and s-methoprene is the one that behaves like an important hormone in insects.
It can be used against fleas, flies, moths, beetles, and other insects. Methoprene was first registered for use in the United States in 1975 and s-methoprene was later registered in 1985.
Read more: S-Methoprene
Allethrin is used almost exclusively in homes and gardens for control of flies and mosquitoes, and in combination with other pesticides to control flying or crawling insects. The purified d-trans-isomer of allethrin is more toxic to insects and is used for control of crawling insects in homes and restaurants.
Read more: D-Allethrin
Cyphenothrin controls insects in household, public health and industrial situations. It is also used to control insects which attack wood and fabrics.
Cyphenothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide with contact and stomach action. It affects the nervous system of insects causing pronounced repetitive activity and a prolongation of the transient increase in sodium permeability of nerve membranes in insects and other invertebrates.
Read more: Cyphenothrin
Imiprothrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. It is an ingredient in some insecticide products for indoor use. It has low acute toxicity to humans, but to insects it acts as a neurotoxin causing paralysis.
Read more: Imiprothrin
Azamethiphos is an organophosphorus insecticide which acts by inhibition of cholinesterase activity. As a pesticide, it is used to control flies and cockroaches in buildings, stores and warehouses.
Read more: Azamethiphos
Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in the world. It is a insecticide that acts as an insect neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids which act on the central nervous system of insects.
The chemical works by interfering with the transmission of stimuli in the insect nervous system. Specifically, it causes a blockage of the nicotinergic neuronal pathway.
Read more: Imidacloprid